Month: February 2022

What is the purpose of the Authoritative DNS server?

What is an Authoritative DNS server?

An authoritative DNS server (also known as an authoritative nameserver) holds the zone file containing DNS records (for A, AAAA, CNAME, TXT, etc.). It could be a domain registrar or a DNS hosting provider’s server.

Several authoritative servers cover various locations. They only respond to queries for the DNS zones they have set up.

They have two primary missions in general. The first is to keep track of domain names and their IP addresses in a database. The second objective is to respond to recursive DNS servers by supplying the correct IP address for each user’s domain.

An authoritative server does not save any cache query results. Instead, it works with original data that has been saved directly in its system.

How to check it? 

The Nslookup command, which is available on Windows, macOS, and Linux, is the simplest way to check the authoritative DNS servers.

To begin, Open the Command Prompt on Windows or the Terminal on macOS and Linux. And after that, run the Nslookup command:

nslookup -type=ns example.net

You will see a list of the domain’s nameservers as well as their IP addresses. It looks like this: 

Server: 127.15.78.53

Address: 127.15.78.53#53

Non-authoritative answer:

example.net nameserver = ns2.pq.hosting.

example.net nameserver = ns1.pq.hosting.

* You can replace “example.net” for the domain name you want to test.

Different types of Authoritative DNS servers

Primary and secondary authoritative DNS servers are the two types of authoritative DNS servers. But, first, let’s have a look at the distinctions between them.

  • Primary or Master Authoritative DNS server stores the zone file and DNS records. It is the only server that allows DNS record changes. As a result, the primary server must notify and provide updates containing all changes made to its zone file. So, it includes a “notify” feature in its functionality. It allows a primary server to notify a secondary server of a new update so that the latter can request it. We use the zone transfer to distribute an update to all secondary servers.
  • Secondary DNS server, also known as a Slave DNS server is a copy of the primary server that cannot be edited. Redundancy is essential and always welcome to avoid risking critical processes and information. Having a secondary server means having a useful backup as well as other benefits. The traffic load can be distributed among servers using these copies to avoid stress. The more nameservers you have to respond to DNS requests, the faster you can serve traffic. Secondary servers are transformed into points of presence (PoPs) where recursive servers can locate the information that users all over the world require.

Authoritative DNS server vs. Recursive DNS server

Imagine the following situation – you are trying to connect to a website (example.net). This query will pass through authoritative and recursive DNS servers, also known as DNS resolvers. They respond to the request and store the canonical information that tells you which IP address corresponds to that domain. For example, the domain example.net fits to Internet Protocol 127.15.78.53.

So, we can say that the recursive DNS servers communicate directly with the end-user, while authoritative DNS servers authority DNS records and maintain DNS record information. This is the main difference between them. In addition, the recursive DNS server reads a user’s DNS request and responds with cached data or finds the answer before responding. So, DNS resolvers can get the answer by looking at what is stored on the authoritative DNS servers.

Primary DNS zone vs. Secondary DNS zone

The comparison Primary DNS zone vs Secondary DNS zone often raises questions in the inexperienced and those just entering in the Domain Name System world. Can we use only the Primary DNS zone, or do we need to implement the Secondary DNS zone? Today in our article, we will take a detailed look at these zone types and how they function. So, let’s bring it on.

What exactly is a DNS zone?

The DNS server you’re using can handle many zones to manage the DNS namespace better. The DNS zone is a part of the domain namespace. In most cases, DNS or web hosting companies delegate it, which are responsible for managing the DNS. A DNS zone is also an administrative function, it allows control over the most important DNS components, such as the authoritative name servers.

It would be best to direct your domain to numerous servers, such as web servers, mail servers, and so on, to function effectively. You can do it by adding different DNS records to the DNS zone.

The DNS zone is the storage location for all DNS records. It is also the only component accountable for the Domain Name System’s existence (DNS). Furthermore, the DNS zone contains information about DNS records and administrative contact information for the DNS zone and zone parameters.

A DNS zone, for example, can be relevant for .uk, rolandsg.co.uk, and so on. However, examining a subdomain as a standalone website will necessitate dedicated administration. As a result, the subdomain will require its zone.

What is the definition of the Primary DNS Zone?

A Master DNS Zone is another name for the Primary DNS Zone. You have control over that specific area of the namespace. There, you can remove and add DNS records and manage your domain name to your preference. If you’re going to administer the domain, every component of it, that is, every host you want to manage, might be a separate Primary DNS Zone. In addition, a domain name can only have one Primary DNS Zone.

The Primary DNS zone is a DNS administrative unit that allows authority over the section (zone) permitted by the DNS hierarchy’s higher levels. 

What does a Secondary DNS zone mean?

The DNS Secondary Zone is a read-only copy of the primary (Master) DNS zone records. It is also known as the Backup DNS zone or the Slave DNS zone. It is critical to understand that DNS records such as A or AAAA, MX, and others cannot be directly added to the Secondary DNS zone. The only way for the records you’ve refreshed to reach your Backup zone is through а transfer from the Primary DNS server/s  (Master DNS zone).  So, if you need to keep your DNS records in the Backup zone up to date, you must first update them on your primary server.

Primary DNS zone vs Secondary DNS zone – the difference

You may be a little confused about what exactly is the difference between these two areas, as they contain the same thing from what has been explained above. Yes, they do. But in fact, the Backup DNS zone cannot exist on its own. The only significant distinction is how the resources are stored on the server. The original zone files are kept in the primary, while a copy is in the secondary. That is, updates to record configurations appear differently.

What is TCP/IP and how does it work?

TCP/IP is a set of communications protocols that is still relatively unknown. It is a combination of two different components – TCP and IP. This article will look at what it is and how it works.

The definition of TCP/IP

TCP/IP is an abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The two protocols (TCP and IP), each with its own set of restrictions, are integrate initially and used for machine communication on networks, including the Internet. It defines how the data travels by determining how it should be split into distinct packets for address, routing, transportation, and delivery.

  • IP – The Internet protocol (IP) specifies the formats and rules that devices and applications should follow when communicating and exchanging data packets within or across networks. IP is responsible for addressing and routing data packets sent from a source to a destination point.
  • TCP – The transmission control protocol (TCP) arranges data during communication between a client and a server in such a way that it is secure. TCP is in responsible of assuring data integrity from the time it leaves the sender’s computer until it arrives at its final destination.

How does it work?

TCP is a protocol that manages connections. Therefore, an active link between the source and the recipient is essential for completing the procedure from start to finish.

TCP chops the message that originated on the source into packets after meeting this requirement. TCP then assigns a number to each of those packets to maintain the message’s integrity. The network layer (the IP) is now ready to receive packets . They will pass via various gateways, routers, and even pathways on their journey to their destination. Exactly! All packets belonging to the same message might be routed differently because they are split. But, finally, they should meet at the exact location. TCP then rebuilds the message to deliver it, following the numerical order of all packets. And it is at this point that the procedure is accomplished.

The TCP/IP model’s four elements

We separate TCP/IP into four elements, also known as layers, and each one has its programming interface. We are going to take a brief look at them, as follow:

  • Internet layer – The internet layer, also known as the network layer, is in charge of packet flow throughout the network. We mainly use it to report errors.
  • Physical layer – The network interface layer is another name for it. This element is in charge of the physical aspects of delivering and receiving data via wireless networks, Ethernet cables, computer device drivers, etc.
  • Application layer – The application layer is a collection of apps that need to communicate through a network. This is where the user interacts most frequently, including through email and messaging.
  • The transport layer establishes a secure data connection between two devices. It ensures that the other device acknowledges the packets it receives.

Conclusion

The Domain Name System operates in the background, and the Internet would not exist without the contributions of every component of its complex system. TCP/IP is a critical component of that machine. Its features have ensured that it remains an essential technology for managing large and complicated networks like the Internet.