Tag: IP

Recursive DNS server: How does it work?

Recursive DNS server is a crucial element of the Domain Name System. If you want to learn more about it, you are on the right page. So let’s begin.

DNS – what does it mean?

The Domain Name System (DNS) is what allows domain names to be translated into IP addresses. This is the common language that machines use to communicate with one another.

Using the Internet before DNS was a more challenging experience. To get to the domains you want to visit, you had to type IP addresses. This necessitated typing large numbers sequences into the browser. It was a time-consuming task. In addition, long digits were difficult to remember, and the odds of making a mistake were high.

It is easier to type example4domain.org weather than

DNS was intended to make this operation as straightforward as possible. Simple domain names are easy to remember. DNS tells machines what domains to look for in their language.

The definition of Recursive DNS server

A Recursive DNS server or DNS resolver is an expert in searching. Yes, it’s the one that looks for the information needed to respond to DNS queries from users.

It’s an essential and efficient part of the DNS system. Recursive is derived from the word recursion. In computing, a solution or a specific process will repeat as many times as necessary to achieve a goal. And that description closely resembles how a Recursive DNS server works.

When a user requests a domain using a browser, a DNS resolver is the first stage to find the domain’s corresponding IP address. It can be quick and straightforward to obtain or require additional steps and effort. On the other hand, the server will not stop looking for it until it finds it. Then it will deliver it to the browser, which will then load and access the asked domain for the visitor (device).

How does Recursive DNS server work?

The recursive DNS server has two modes of operation. They are the following:

The first way is thought to be much simpler and speedier. The Internet address(IP) is stored in its cache memory. These servers can save the information in their cache for a specific period of time. It is up to the administrators to decide how long they should keep it. They can use the time-to-live (TTL) to evaluate whether they need more or less time. Actually, it’s all reliant on the administrators’ plan.

When the recursive DNS server receives the query, it will first look for the IP address in its cache memory. The assignment is complete if that information is still available there and the TTL has not yet expired. It’s advantageous since the answer is quick, and the recursive DNS server doesn’t have to look for information on other servers.

The second way of the search will take a little longer to finish. It occurs when the cache’s TTL has passed its expiration date. As a result, the IP address is no longer accessible. On the other hand, the recursive DNS server goes a long way toward obtaining the needed information. It travels from the root server to the TLD (Top-Level-Domain) server to the authoritative server, which is the one that can answer the question.


In conclusion, we can say that recursive DNS servers are essential for making the resolution process and the Internet, in general, more flexible. As a result, their numbers are significant, and their presence is widespread. Recursive servers are used by every Internet Service Provider (ISP), and they aren’t just for ISPs. DNS service providers, domain registrars, and various network providers are all examples of DNS service providers.

What is TCP/IP and how does it work?

TCP/IP is a set of communications protocols that is still relatively unknown. It is a combination of two different components – TCP and IP. This article will look at what it is and how it works.

The definition of TCP/IP

TCP/IP is an abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The two protocols (TCP and IP), each with its own set of restrictions, are integrate initially and used for machine communication on networks, including the Internet. It defines how the data travels by determining how it should be split into distinct packets for address, routing, transportation, and delivery.

  • IP – The Internet protocol (IP) specifies the formats and rules that devices and applications should follow when communicating and exchanging data packets within or across networks. IP is responsible for addressing and routing data packets sent from a source to a destination point.
  • TCP – The transmission control protocol (TCP) arranges data during communication between a client and a server in such a way that it is secure. TCP is in responsible of assuring data integrity from the time it leaves the sender’s computer until it arrives at its final destination.

How does it work?

TCP is a protocol that manages connections. Therefore, an active link between the source and the recipient is essential for completing the procedure from start to finish.

TCP chops the message that originated on the source into packets after meeting this requirement. TCP then assigns a number to each of those packets to maintain the message’s integrity. The network layer (the IP) is now ready to receive packets . They will pass via various gateways, routers, and even pathways on their journey to their destination. Exactly! All packets belonging to the same message might be routed differently because they are split. But, finally, they should meet at the exact location. TCP then rebuilds the message to deliver it, following the numerical order of all packets. And it is at this point that the procedure is accomplished.

The TCP/IP model’s four elements

We separate TCP/IP into four elements, also known as layers, and each one has its programming interface. We are going to take a brief look at them, as follow:

  • Internet layer – The internet layer, also known as the network layer, is in charge of packet flow throughout the network. We mainly use it to report errors.
  • Physical layer – The network interface layer is another name for it. This element is in charge of the physical aspects of delivering and receiving data via wireless networks, Ethernet cables, computer device drivers, etc.
  • Application layer – The application layer is a collection of apps that need to communicate through a network. This is where the user interacts most frequently, including through email and messaging.
  • The transport layer establishes a secure data connection between two devices. It ensures that the other device acknowledges the packets it receives.


The Domain Name System operates in the background, and the Internet would not exist without the contributions of every component of its complex system. TCP/IP is a critical component of that machine. Its features have ensured that it remains an essential technology for managing large and complicated networks like the Internet.